Workplace Bullying in the European Union
In the European Union there is no uniform definition of workplace bullying or harassment
(Vartia - Vaananen, 2013). However, most researchers and people who work with this issue have a couple of commonalities that go with workplace bullying:
Negative acts that may cause psychological harm
Direct and indirect behaviors focused on a target or many targets
Work-related, person-related and social exclusion
Repeated and frequent
Power imbalance making it hard to defend oneself
In the 2010, Fifth European Working Conditions Survey conducted by the European Foundation - 48,316 people were surveyed (about 1000 per country, 34 countries across Europe) on this issue of workplace bullying and here are some results.
Exposure to bullying or harassment was most common in:
We can see unfortunately that workplace bullying is universal.
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